2006-2010, 2009, Časová línia, Európske, Krajina, Mestá, Mestá, Talianske mestá, Taliansko, Typ krajiny, Zahraničie

Padova – starodávne severotalianske mesto

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Pado­va je sta­ro­dáv­ne mes­to ležia­ce na seve­re Talian­ska. Jeho his­tó­ria sia­ha hlbo­ko do minu­los­ti. Rím­ske Pata­vium bolo jed­no z naj­bo­hat­ších miest, ale v roku 452 ho vyplie­ni­li Huni. V roku 1164 zís­ka­la Pado­va ako prvé seve­ro­ta­lian­ske mes­to nezá­vis­losť od ríš­skej moci (Wiki­pe­dia). Žije v ňom cca 213 000 oby­va­te­ľov. Veľ­mi zná­my chrám v Pado­ve je Bazi­li­ka sv. Anto­na, zná­ma tiež ako Il San­to” (Wiki­pe­dia). Strie­da sa tu román­sky, gotic­ký a byzant­ský štýl. Pred bazi­li­kou sto­jí socha Gat­ta­me­la­tu, kto­rú v roku 1453 vytvo­ril Dona­tel­lo na počesť Eras­ma da Nar­ni, kto­rý bol veli­te­ľom Benát­skej repub­li­ky a bol neoby­čaj­ne dip­lo­ma­tic­ky šikov­ný, vďa­ka čomu ho pre­zý­va­li Gat­ta­me­la­ta – stra­ka­tá mačka. 

Ďal­ší­mi význam­ný­mi pamiat­ka­mi sú Bazi­li­ka svä­tej Jus­tí­ny (Wiki­pe­dia), Padov­ský dóm, obro­vi­tý rene­sanč­ný Palaz­zo del­la Ragi­one – pôvod­ne budo­va mest­ské­ho tri­bu­ná­lu Il Salo­ne”. Kapl­n­ka Scro­veg­ni bola posta­ve­ná v roku 1303 a za jej výzdo­bou sto­jí Giot­to (Wiki­pe­dia). V Pado­ve sa nachá­dza aj jed­no z naj­zná­mej­ších a naj­väč­ších námes­tí Pra­to del­la Val­le (Wiki­pe­dia). Jeho súčas­ťou je elip­tic­ký kanál so socha­mi 84 sláv­nych Pado­va­nov a štu­den­tov tunaj­šej uni­ver­zi­ty (Wiki­pe­dia). Pado­va je jed­no z naj­zná­mej­ších uni­ver­zit­ných miest na sve­te. Uni­ver­zi­ta tu bola zalo­že­ná už v roku 1222. Pôso­bi­li tu osob­nos­ti ako Vesa­lius, Miku­láš Koper­nik, Gali­leo Gali­lei (Wiki­pe­dia), Jan Nepo­muc­ký (Wiki­pe­dia). Pado­va je mies­tom naj­star­šej bota­nic­kej záh­ra­dy na sve­te. Vznik­la v roku 1545 (Wiki­pe­dia).

Pado­va, anglic­ky Padua je jed­ným z naj­star­ších miest v sever­nom Talian­sku a má boha­tú his­tó­riu, kedy­si bola význam­ným cen­trom Rím­skej ríše. Pado­va sa spo­mí­na v lite­rár­nych die­lach, vrá­ta­ne die­la Wil­lia­ma Sha­kes­pe­a­ra The Taming of the Shrew”. Je dôle­ži­tým eko­no­mic­kým cen­trom, je dob­re napo­je­ná na cest­nú a želez­nič­nú sieť.


Padua is an ancient city loca­ted in nort­hern Ita­ly. Its his­to­ry stret­ches far into the past. Roman Pata­vium was one of the wealt­hiest cities, but in 452, it was plun­de­red by the Huns. In 1164, Padua gai­ned inde­pen­den­ce from impe­rial power, beco­ming the first city in nort­hern Ita­ly to do so (Wiki­pe­dia). App­ro­xi­ma­te­ly 213,000 peop­le inha­bit the city. The reno­wned sanc­tu­ary in Padua is the Basi­li­ca of St. Ant­ho­ny, also kno­wn as Il San­to” (Wiki­pe­dia). It fea­tu­res a mix of Roma­ne­sque, Got­hic, and Byzan­ti­ne sty­les. In front of the basi­li­ca stands the sta­tue of Gat­ta­me­la­ta, cre­a­ted by Dona­tel­lo in 1453 in honor of Eras­mo da Nar­ni, a skil­led Vene­tian mili­ta­ry com­man­der, dip­lo­ma­ti­cal­ly nick­na­med Gat­ta­me­la­ta – the spot­ted cat.

Other sig­ni­fi­cant land­marks inc­lu­de the Basi­li­ca of Saint Jus­ti­na (Wiki­pe­dia), Padua Cat­hed­ral, the colos­sal Renais­san­ce Palaz­zo del­la Ragi­one – ori­gi­nal­ly the city­’s tri­bu­nal Il Salo­ne.” The Scro­veg­ni Cha­pel, built-​in 1303, boasts deco­ra­ti­ons by Giot­to (Wiki­pe­dia). Padua is also home to one of the most famous and lar­gest squ­ares, Pra­to del­la Val­le (Wiki­pe­dia). An ellip­ti­cal canal with sta­tu­es of 84 notab­le Padu­ans and stu­dents from the local uni­ver­si­ty is part of the squ­are. Padua is reno­wned as one of the oldest uni­ver­si­ty cities glo­bal­ly, foun­ded in 1222. Dis­tin­gu­is­hed figu­res like Vesa­lius, Nicho­las Coper­ni­cus, Gali­leo Gali­lei (Wiki­pe­dia), and John of Nepo­muk (Wiki­pe­dia) have con­tri­bu­ted to its lega­cy. Padua hosts the worl­d’s oldest bota­ni­cal gar­den, estab­lis­hed in 1545 (Wiki­pe­dia).


Pado­va è un’an­ti­ca cit­tà situ­ata nel nord Ita­lia. La sua sto­ria si esten­de pro­fon­da­men­te nel pas­sa­to. Il roma­no Pata­vium era una del­le cit­tà più ric­che, ma nel 452 fu sac­cheg­gia­to dag­li Unni. Nel 1164, Pado­va otten­ne l’in­di­pen­den­za dal pote­re impe­ria­le, diven­tan­do la pri­ma cit­tà nel nord Ita­lia a far­lo (Wiki­pe­dia). Cir­ca 213.000 per­so­ne abi­ta­no la cit­tà. Il san­tu­ario rino­ma­to a Pado­va è la Basi­li­ca di San­t’An­to­nio, conos­ciu­ta anche come Il San­to” (Wiki­pe­dia). Pre­sen­ta uno sti­le mis­to di roma­ni­co, goti­co e bizan­ti­no. Davan­ti alla basi­li­ca si erge la sta­tua di Gat­ta­me­la­ta, cre­a­ta da Dona­tel­lo nel 1453 in ono­re di Eras­mo da Nar­ni, abi­le coman­dan­te mili­ta­re vene­zia­no, sop­ran­no­mi­na­to dip­lo­ma­ti­ca­men­te Gat­ta­me­la­ta – il gat­to maculato.

Altri luog­hi sig­ni­fi­ca­ti­vi inc­lu­do­no la Basi­li­ca di San­ta Gius­ti­na (Wiki­pe­dia), il Duomo di Pado­va, il colos­sa­le Palaz­zo del­la Ragi­one in sti­le rinas­ci­men­ta­le – ori­gi­na­ria­men­te il tri­bu­na­le cit­ta­di­no Il Salo­ne”. La Cap­pel­la degli Scro­veg­ni, cos­tru­ita nel 1303, van­ta deco­ra­zi­oni di Giot­to (Wiki­pe­dia). Pado­va è anche sede di una del­le piaz­ze più famo­se e gran­di, Pra­to del­la Val­le (Wiki­pe­dia). Un cana­le ellit­ti­co con sta­tue di 84 noti pado­va­ni e stu­den­ti del­l’u­ni­ver­si­tà loca­le fa par­te del­la piaz­za. Pado­va è rino­ma­ta come una del­le cit­tà uni­ver­si­ta­rie più anti­che del mon­do, fon­da­ta nel 1222. Figu­re illus­tri come Vesa­lio, Nic­co­lò Coper­ni­co, Gali­leo Gali­lei (Wiki­pe­dia) e Giovan­ni Nepo­mu­ce­no (Wiki­pe­dia) han­no con­tri­bu­ito al suo las­ci­to. Pado­va ospi­ta il giar­di­no bota­ni­co più anti­co del mon­do, fon­da­to nel 1545 (Wiki­pe­dia).


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2006-2010, 2009, Časová línia, Krajina, Taliansko, Zahraničie

Severné Taliansko – prímorská krajina aj s horami

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Sever­né Talian­sko obklo­pu­je Slo­vin­sko, Rakús­ko, Švaj­čiar­sko a Fran­cúz­sko. Nachá­dza­jú sa tu také mes­tá ako Milá­no, Turín, Janov, Benát­ky, Bolo­ňa, Vero­na, Pado­va. Blíz­ko hra­níc s Rakús­kom sú krás­ne hory – Dolo­mi­ty.

V Dolo­mi­toch sú hor­ské cha­ty otvo­re­né od 20. júna do 20. sep­tem­bra. Na horách sa poča­sie občas poka­zí, v Dolo­mi­toch vraj nikdy nie nadl­ho. Naj­lep­šia vidi­teľ­nosť a najis­tej­šie poča­sie na turis­ti­ku je v sep­tem­bri (Koval­čík). Ďal­ším lákad­lom sú Jul­ské Alpy, zná­me je prí­mor­ské leto­vis­ko Terst, his­to­ric­ké mes­to Fer­ra­ra, nemec­ky hovo­ria­ce Bol­za­no. Raven­na bola kedy­si prí­sta­vom, dnes je z Jad­ra­nom spo­je­ná 10 km dlhým kaná­lom. Nachá­dza sa tu mno­ho sta­vieb s ran­né­ho stre­do­ve­ku. San Mari­no je samos­tat­ná repub­li­ka ležia­ca 27 km od Rimi­ni. Je nav­šte­vo­va­né vďa­ka Mon­te Tita­no, kto­ré­ho tri skal­né ští­ty koru­nu­jú hra­dy. V Tren­ti­ne je 297 jazier, tak­mer všet­ky sú ľadov­co­vé­ho pôvo­du (ckma​y​er​.cz). Ber­ga­mo je z nemec­ké­ho berg – hora a amo – milo­vať. Svoj slo­bod­ný a nezá­vis­lý ráz si udr­ža­lo od 6. sto­ro­čia pred n.l., kedy ho zalo­ži­li Etrus­ko­via. Polen­ta je už stá­ro­čia rov­na­ko žltá (dama​.cz).


Nort­hern Ita­ly is sur­roun­ded by Slo­ve­nia, Aus­tria, Swit­zer­land, and Fran­ce. Cities like Milan, Turin, Genoa, Veni­ce, Bolog­na, Vero­na, and Padua can be found here. Clo­se to the Aus­trian bor­der are the beau­ti­ful moun­tains – the Dolomites.

In the Dolo­mi­tes, moun­tain huts are open from June 20th to Sep­tem­ber 20th. Weat­her in the moun­tains can occa­si­onal­ly turn, but in the Dolo­mi­tes, they say it never lasts for long. The best visi­bi­li­ty and the most reliab­le weat­her for hiking are in Sep­tem­ber (Koval­čík). Anot­her att­rac­ti­on is the Julian Alps, and the sea­si­de resort of Tries­te is well-​known, as is the his­to­ric city of Fer­ra­ra and the German-​speaking Bol­za­no. Raven­na was once a port; today, it is con­nec­ted to the Adria­tic by a 10 km-​long canal. Many buil­dings from the ear­ly Midd­le Ages can be found here. San Mari­no is an inde­pen­dent repub­lic loca­ted 27 km from Rimi­ni, kno­wn for Mon­te Tita­no, cro­wned with three roc­ky peaks and cast­les. In Tren­ti­no, the­re are 297 lakes, almost all of gla­cial ori­gin (ckma​y​er​.cz). Ber­ga­mo comes from the Ger­man words berg – moun­tain and amo – to love. It has main­tai­ned its free and inde­pen­dent cha­rac­ter sin­ce the 6th cen­tu­ry BCE when it was foun­ded by the Etrus­cans. Polen­ta has been equ­al­ly yel­low for cen­tu­ries (dama​.cz).


Il Nord Ita­lia è cir­con­da­to da Slo­ve­nia, Aus­tria, Sviz­ze­ra e Fran­cia. Qui si tro­va­no cit­tà come Mila­no, Tori­no, Geno­va, Vene­zia, Bolog­na, Vero­na e Pado­va. Vici­no al con­fi­ne con l’Aus­tria si tro­va­no le bel­lis­si­me mon­tag­ne del­le Dolomiti.

Nel­le Dolo­mi­ti, i rifu­gi di mon­tag­na sono aper­ti dal 20 giug­no al 20 set­tem­bre. Il tem­po in mon­tag­na può occa­si­onal­men­te peg­gi­ora­re, ma nel­le Dolo­mi­ti si dice che non duri mai a lun­go. La mig­li­ore visi­bi­li­tà e il tem­po più affi­da­bi­le per l’es­cur­si­onis­mo sono a set­tem­bre (Koval­čík). Un’al­tra att­ra­zi­one sono le Alpi Giu­lie e la loca­li­tà bal­ne­a­re di Tries­te, famo­sa anche per la cit­tà sto­ri­ca di Fer­ra­ra e Bol­za­no di lin­gua tedes­ca. Raven­na era una vol­ta un por­to; oggi è col­le­ga­ta all’Ad­ria­ti­co da un cana­le lun­go 10 km. Qui si tro­va­no mol­te cos­tru­zi­oni del­l’al­to Medi­oevo. San Mari­no è una repubb­li­ca indi­pen­den­te situ­ata a 27 km da Rimi­ni, conos­ciu­ta per il Mon­te Tita­no, coro­na­to da tre pic­chi roc­ci­osi e cas­tel­li. In Tren­ti­no ci sono 297 lag­hi, quasi tut­ti di ori­gi­ne gla­cia­le (ckma​y​er​.cz). Ber­ga­mo deri­va dal­le paro­le tedes­che berg – mon­tag­na e amo – ama­re. Ha man­te­nu­to il suo carat­te­re libe­ro e indi­pen­den­te fin dal VI seco­lo a.C., quan­do fu fon­da­ta dag­li Etrus­chi. La polen­ta è gial­la da seco­li (dama​.cz).


Nor­di­ta­lien ist von Slo­we­nien, Öster­re­ich, der Sch­we­iz und Fran­kre­ich umge­ben. Hier fin­det man Städ­te wie Mai­land, Turin, Genua, Vene­dig, Bolog­na, Vero­na und Padua. In der Nähe der öster­re­i­chis­chen Gren­ze befin­den sich die wun­ders­chönen Ber­ge der Dolomiten.

In den Dolo­mi­ten sind die Ber­güt­ten vom 20. Juni bis zum 20. Sep­tem­ber geöff­net. Das Wet­ter in den Ber­gen kann sich gele­gen­tlich versch­lech­tern, aber in den Dolo­mi­ten hei­ßt es, dass es nie lan­ge anhält. Die bes­te Sicht und das zuver­läs­sigs­te Wet­ter zum Wan­dern sind im Sep­tem­ber (Koval­čík). Eine wei­te­re Att­rak­ti­on sind die Julis­chen Alpen, und das See­bad Triest ist bekannt, eben­so wie die his­to­ris­che Stadt Fer­ra­ra und das deutschs­pra­chi­ge Bozen. Raven­na war einst ein Hafen; heute ist es durch einen 10 km lan­gen Kanal mit der Adria ver­bun­den. Hier fin­den sich vie­le Gebä­u­de aus dem frühen Mit­te­lal­ter. San Mari­no ist eine unab­hän­gi­ge Repub­lik, die 27 km von Rimi­ni ent­fernt liegt, bekannt für den Mon­te Tita­no, gek­rönt mit drei fel­si­gen Gip­feln und Bur­gen. In Tren­ti­no gibt es 297 Seen, fast alle gla­zia­len Urs­prungs (ckma​y​er​.cz). Ber­ga­mo lei­tet sich von den deuts­chen Wör­tern berg – Berg und amo – lie­ben ab. Es hat seit dem 6. Jahr­hun­dert v. Chr., als es von den Etrus­kern geg­rün­det wur­de, sei­nen fre­ien und unab­hän­gi­gen Cha­rak­ter bewa­hrt. Polen­ta ist seit Jahr­hun­der­ten gle­ich gelb (dama​.cz).


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2006-2010, 2009, Časová línia, Európske, Krajina, Mestá, Mestá, Talianske mestá, Taliansko, Typ krajiny, Zahraničie

Verona – romantické mesto Rómea a Júlie

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Na plo­che nece­lých 207 km2 žije cca 265 000 oby­va­te­ľov (wikipedia.en). Cez mes­to tečie rie­ka Adi­ža (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). V uli­ci Capel­lo, sto­jí Casa di Giu­liet­ta, stre­do­ve­ký meš­tian­sky dom, kto­rý pat­ril rodu Capu­le­tov – vo dvo­re je Júli­in bal­kón“ (wikipedia.cs). Aré­na vo Vero­ne je tre­tí naj­väč­ší rím­sky amfi­te­áter v Talian­sku. Počas leta sa v ňom koná množ­stvo pred­sta­ve­ní (vero​na​.me). Mes­to Vero­na leží na seve­re Talianska.

V roku 550 pred n. l. Vero­nu doby­li Galo­via, kmeň Ceno­ma­nen (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). V roku 30 tu císař Augus­tus dal posta­viť amfi­te­áter (wikipedia.cs). V roku 452 mes­to vyplie­nil Atti­la. V roku 489 tu ger­mán­ske­ho Odo­ake­ra pora­zil ostro­gót­sky kráľ Teodo­rich Veľ­ký, kto­rý si tu zria­di rezi­den­ciu (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Posled­ným lom­bard­ským krá­ľom tu bol Adal­gi­sus, kto­rý do roku 774 odo­lá­val nájaz­dom Karo­la Veľ­ké­ho, kto­rý krá­ľov­stvo zni­čil. Neskôr tu síd­li­li fran­ko­via, kto­rí odtiaľ­to ovlá­da­li sever­né Talian­sko (wikipedia.cs). V roku 1117 pos­tih­lo mes­to veľ­ké zeme­tra­se­nie, po ňom bola Vero­na výraz­ne pre­sta­va­ná. V 15. a v 16. sto­ro­čí pôso­bi­la vo Vero­ne sláv­na maliar­ska ško­la (wikipedia.cs). Samos­tat­nosť Vero­na zís­ka­la začiat­kom 12. sto­ro­čia (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Od roku 1404 pat­ri­lo mes­to Benát­kám. V roku 1797 ju dobyl Napo­le­on I., kto­rý ju však pre­dal Rakús­ku. V roku 1866 bolo Benát­sko pri­po­je­né ku zjed­no­te­né­mu Talian­sku (wikipedia.cs).

Osob­nos­ti mes­ta: maliar a vedec Leonar­do Da Vin­ci, cyk­lis­ta Damia­no Cune­go, Romeo Mon­ta­gue a Juliet Capu­let – fik­tív­ny hrdi­no­via zo Sha­kes­pe­a­ro­vej drá­my Romeo a Júlia (wikipedia.en), Dan­te Alig­hie­ri (wikipedia.cs).


On an area of just under 207 km², app­ro­xi­ma­te­ly 265,000 inha­bi­tants live (wikipedia.en). The river Adi­ge flo­ws through the city (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). In Capel­lo Stre­et stands Casa di Giu­liet­ta, a medie­val bour­ge­ois hou­se that belo­n­ged to the Capu­let fami­ly – in the cour­ty­ard is Julie­t’s bal­co­ny” (wikipedia.cs). The Are­na in Vero­na is the third-​largest Roman amp­hit­he­a­ter in Ita­ly. During the sum­mer, it hosts nume­rous per­for­man­ces (vero​na​.me). The city of Vero­na is loca­ted in nort­hern Italy.

In the year 550 BC, Vero­na was conqu­e­red by the Gauls, the Ceno­ma­ni tri­be (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). In the year 30, Empe­ror Augus­tus had the amp­hit­he­a­ter built (wikipedia.cs). In 452, the city was plun­de­red by Atti­la. In 489, the Ostro­got­hic king The­odo­ric the Gre­at defe­a­ted the Ger­ma­nic Odo­acer here, estab­lis­hing his resi­den­ce (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). The last Lom­bard king here was Adal­gi­sus, who resis­ted the inva­si­on of Char­le­mag­ne until 774, when the king­dom was des­tro­y­ed. Later, the Franks sett­led here, con­trol­ling nort­hern Ita­ly from this point (wikipedia.cs). In 1117, a major eart­hqu­ake struck the city, after which Vero­na was sig­ni­fi­can­tly rebu­ilt. In the 15th and 16th cen­tu­ries, Vero­na was home to the famous scho­ol of pain­ting (wikipedia.cs). Vero­na gai­ned inde­pen­den­ce at the begin­ning of the 12th cen­tu­ry (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Sin­ce 1404, the city belo­n­ged to Veni­ce. In 1797, it was conqu­e­red by Napo­le­on I, who, howe­ver, sold it to Aus­tria. In 1866, Vene­to was anne­xed to uni­fied Ita­ly (wikipedia.cs).

Notab­le per­so­na­li­ties from the city inc­lu­de pain­ter and scien­tist Leonar­do Da Vin­ci, cyc­list Damia­no Cune­go, Romeo Mon­ta­gue, and Juliet Capu­let – fic­ti­onal hero­es from Sha­kes­pe­a­re­’s play Romeo and Juliet (wikipedia.en), Dan­te Alig­hie­ri (wikipedia.cs).


Su una super­fi­cie di poco meno di 207 km² vivo­no cir­ca 265.000 abi­tan­ti (wikipedia.en). Att­ra­ver­so la cit­tà scor­re il fiu­me Adi­ge (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Nel­la via Capel­lo si tro­va Casa di Giu­liet­ta, una casa borg­he­se medie­va­le che appar­te­ne­va alla famig­lia Capu­le­ti – nel cor­ti­le c’è il bal­co­ne di Giu­liet­ta” (wikipedia.cs). L’A­re­na di Vero­na è il ter­zo anfi­te­at­ro roma­no più gran­de d’I­ta­lia. Duran­te l’es­ta­te, ospi­ta nume­ro­se rapp­re­sen­ta­zi­oni (vero​na​.me). La cit­tà di Vero­na si tro­va nel nord dell’Italia.

Nel­l’an­no 550 a.C., Vero­na fu conqu­is­ta­ta dai Gal­li, dal­la tri­bù dei Ceno­ma­ni (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Nel 30 a.C., l’im­pe­ra­to­re Augus­to fece cos­tru­ire l’an­fi­te­at­ro (wikipedia.cs). Nel 452, la cit­tà fu sac­cheg­gia­ta da Atti­la. Nel 489, il re ostro­go­to Teodo­ri­co il Gran­de scon­fis­se il ger­ma­ni­co Odo­ac­re, sta­bi­len­do qui la sua resi­den­za (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). L’ul­ti­mo re lon­go­bar­do fu Adal­gi­sus, che resis­tet­te all’in­va­si­one di Car­lo Mag­no fino al 774, quan­do il regno fu dis­trut­to. Suc­ces­si­va­men­te, gli abi­tan­ti di Vero­na furo­no i Fran­chi, che con­trol­la­va­no da qui il nord Ita­lia (wikipedia.cs). Nel 1117, un ter­re­mo­to col­pì la cit­tà, dopo­di­ché Vero­na fu sig­ni­fi­ca­ti­va­men­te ricos­tru­ita. Nel XVXVI seco­lo, Vero­na fu sede del­la famo­sa scu­ola di pit­tu­ra (wikipedia.cs). Vero­na otten­ne l’in­di­pen­den­za all’i­ni­zio del XII seco­lo (wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Dal 1404, la cit­tà appar­te­ne­va a Vene­zia. Nel 1797 fu conqu­is­ta­ta da Napo­le­one I, che tut­ta­via la ven­det­te all’Aus­tria. Nel 1866 il Vene­to fu annes­so all’I­ta­lia uni­ta (wikipedia.cs).

Tra le per­so­na­li­tà del­la cit­tà ci sono il pit­to­re e scien­zia­to Leonar­do Da Vin­ci, il cic­lis­ta Damia­no Cune­go, Romeo Mon­tec­chi e Giu­liet­ta Capu­le­ti – eroi imma­gi­na­ri del­la com­me­dia di Sha­kes­pe­a­re Romeo e Giu­liet­ta (wikipedia.en), Dan­te Alig­hie­ri (wikipedia.cs).


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2006-2010, 2009, Časová línia, Krajina, Mestá, Taliansko, TOP, Typ krajiny, Zahraničie

Taliansko

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Kra­ji­na v tva­re čiž­my, kto­rá vychá­dza z kon­ti­nen­tu a z ostat­ných strán je obklo­pe­ná Stre­do­zem­ným morom. Talian­sko má sláv­nu his­tó­riu, kto by nepoz­nal sta­ro­ve­ký Rím, obdo­bie anti­ky, Nera, Mar­ca Aure­lia, Cézara?

V Talian­sku žije viac ako 60 mili­ó­nov oby­va­te­ľov na plo­che 301 230 km2. Má nie­koľ­ko ostro­vov: Síci­liu, Sar­dí­niu, Elbu, Cap­ri, Tre­mi­ti a Ischiu (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk). Väč­ši­na Talian­ska je Ape­nin­ským polo­os­tro­vom. Na seve­re sa vypí­na­jú Alpy, na hra­ni­ciach s Fran­cúz­skom je naj­vyš­ší vrch Euró­py Mont Blanc. Cez polo­os­trov sa tiah­nu Ape­ni­ny. Na ostro­voch sú čin­né sop­ky Vezuv, Etna, Strom­bo­li (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk).

Pomer­ne veľ­ké zastú­pe­nie majú národ­nos­ti okrem domá­cej, kto­rá tvo­rí tak­mer 93 % popu­lá­cie. A to naj­mä rumu­ni, seve­ro­af­ri­ča­nia, albán­ci, čína­nia, ukra­jin­ci. Veľ­ké mes­tá Talian­ska: Rím (Rome), Milá­no (Milan), Neapol, Turín, Paler­mo, Janov (Genoa), Bolog­na, Flo­ren­cia, Bari, Cata­nia, Benát­ky (Veni­ce), Vero­na, Mes­si­na, Pado­va (Padua) (Wiki­pe­dia ENG). Regi­ó­ny Talian­ska: Abruz­zo, Basi­li­ca­ta, Kaláb­ria, Cam­pa­nia, Emi­lia Romag­na, Friu­li Vene­zia Giu­lia, Lazio, Ligu­ria, Lom­bar­dia, Mar­che, Moli­se, Pie­mon­te, Pug­lia, Sar­dí­nia, Sicí­lia, Tos­kán­sko, Tren­ti­no – Alto Adi­ge, Umbria, Val­le d‘Aousta, Vené­cia (dovo​len​ka​ta​lian​sko​.sk). Rím je síd­lom pápe­ža. Veľ­mi zná­ma je veta: Všet­ky ces­ty vedú do Ríma”.

V sta­ro­ve­ku na úze­mí Talian­ska exis­to­va­li mest­ské štá­ty čias­toč­ne zalo­že­ných na gréc­kej kolo­ni­zá­cii a etrus­ké mes­tá. V 8. sto­ro­čí vzni­kol Rím, kto­rý zažil veľ­kú slá­vu a tešil sa jej viac ako tisíc rokov. Zani­kol v roku 476 (Wiki​pe​dia​.cz). V sta­ro­ve­ku (264144 pred n. l.) počas pún­skym vojen Féni­ča­nia z Kar­tá­ga bojo­va­li pro­ti Rima­nom. V rokoch 7371 pred n. l. pre­beh­lo Spar­ta­ko­ve povs­ta­nie. Spar­ta­kus bol gla­diá­tor (Pet­ra Sur­mo­vá). 

Nie­kto­rí zo sláv­nych vlád­cov Ríma: Augus­tus, Tibe­rius, Cali­gu­la, Clau­dius, Nero, Vitel­lius, Ves­pa­sian, Titus, Ner­va, Tra­jan, Had­rian, Anto­ni­nus Pius, Lucius Verus, Mar­cus Aure­lius, Com­mo­dus, Per­ti­nax, Sep­ti­mus Seve­rus, Vale­rian, Gal­lie­nus, Quin­til­lus, Taci­tus, Flo­ria­nus, Dioc­le­tian, Fla­vius Vale­rius Seve­rus, Lici­nius, The­odo­sius, Romu­lus Augus­tu­lus (List of Roman empe­rors). Zná­mi hudob­ní skla­da­te­lia: Gia­co­mo Puc­ci­ni, Clau­dio Mon­te­ver­di, Arcan­ge­lo Corel­li, Anto­nio Vival­di, Gioac­chi­no Ros­si­ni, Nico­lo Paga­ni­ni, Giu­sep­pe Ver­di, Gae­ota­no Doni­zet­ti. Zná­mi malia­ri: Miche­lan­ge­lo, Leonar­do da Vin­ci, Dona­tel­lo, Bot­ti­cel­li, Cara­vag­gio, Titian, Rap­ha­el, spi­so­va­te­lia: Dan­te Alig­hie­ri, Giovan­ni Boc­cac­cio, Torqu­ato Tas­so, filo­zo­fo­via: Gior­da­no Bru­no, Nic­co­lo Machia­vel­li, fil­má­ri: Vit­to­rio De Sica, Fede­ri­co Fel­li­ni, Pier Paolo Paso­li­ni, Luchi­no Vis­con­ti, Miche­lan­ge­lo Anto­ni­oni, Ser­gio Leone, ved­ci: Leonar­do da Vin­ci, Gali­leo Gali­lei, Enri­co Fer­mi, Giovan­ni Dome­ni­co Cas­si­ni, Ales­san­dro Vol­ta, Leonar­do Pisa­no Fibo­nac­ci, Camil­lo Gol­gi, Gug­liel­mo Mar­co­ni (Wiki­pe­dia ENG).

Sve­to­zná­me sú mód­ne znač­ky Guc­ci, Pra­da, Ver­sa­ce, Valen­ti­no, Arma­ni (world​cat​.org), Benet­ton (Dela­na Miko­lá­šo­vá), ape­ri­tí­vy: Cin­za­no, Mar­ti­ni, Cam­pa­ri, syry: moz­za­rel­la, gor­gon­zo­la, par­mi­gia­no, (Dela­na Miko­lá­šo­vá), fut­ba­lo­vé klu­by: Juven­tus Turín, AC Milá­no, Lazio Rím, Inter Milá­no, AC Par­ma, SSC Neapol.


Ita­ly, sha­ped like a boot, extends from the con­ti­nent and is sur­roun­ded by the Medi­ter­ra­ne­an Sea. Ita­ly boasts a rich his­to­ry, with the reno­wned ancient Rome, the anti­qu­ity peri­od, and ico­nic figu­res like Nero, Mar­cus Aure­lius, and Caesar.

With a popu­la­ti­on exce­e­ding 60 mil­li­on across 301,230 km², Ita­ly inc­lu­des seve­ral islands such as Sici­ly, Sar­di­nia, Elba, Cap­ri, Tre­mi­ti, and Ischia (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk). The majo­ri­ty of Ita­ly is the Apen­ni­ne Penin­su­la. The Alps rise to the north, with Mont Blanc, Euro­pe­’s hig­hest peak, bor­de­ring Fran­ce. The Apen­ni­nes stretch across the penin­su­la. Acti­ve vol­ca­no­es, inc­lu­ding Vesu­vius, Etna, and Strom­bo­li, are found on the islands (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk).

Apart from the pre­do­mi­nan­tly nati­ve popu­la­ti­on, making up almost 93%, Ita­ly hosts diver­se nati­ona­li­ties like Roma­nians, North Afri­cans, Alba­nians, Chi­ne­se, and Ukrai­nians. Major cities inc­lu­de Rome, Milan, Naples, Turin, Paler­mo, Genoa, Bolog­na, Flo­ren­ce, Bari, Cata­nia, Veni­ce, Vero­na, Mes­si­na, and Padua (Wiki­pe­dia ENG). Regi­ons in Ita­ly encom­pass Abruz­zo, Basi­li­ca­ta, Calab­ria, Cam­pa­nia, Emi­lia Romag­na, Friu­li Vene­zia Giu­lia, Lazio, Ligu­ria, Lom­bar­dy, Mar­che, Moli­se, Pied­mont, Pug­lia, Sar­di­nia, Sici­ly, Tus­ca­ny, Tren­ti­no – Alto Adi­ge, Umbria, Val­le d’A­os­ta, and Vene­to (dovo​len​ka​ta​lian​sko​.sk). Rome ser­ves as the papal resi­den­ce, and the famous say­ing goes, All roads lead to Rome.”

In ancient times, Ita­ly was home to city-​states part­ly foun­ded on Gre­ek colo­ni­za­ti­on and Etrus­can cities. Rome emer­ged in the 8th cen­tu­ry, expe­rien­cing gran­de­ur for over a mil­len­nium befo­re its dec­li­ne in 476 (Wiki​pe​dia​.cz). In the ancient era (264144 BC), during the Punic Wars, the Pho­eni­cians from Cart­ha­ge fought against the Romans. The Spar­ta­cus upri­sing occur­red bet­we­en 7371 BC, led by the gla­dia­tor Spar­ta­cus (Pet­ra Surmová).

Some notab­le Roman rulers inc­lu­de Augus­tus, Tibe­rius, Cali­gu­la, Clau­dius, Nero, Ves­pa­sian, Titus, Tra­jan, Had­rian, Mar­cus Aure­lius, and Com­mo­dus, among others (List of Roman empe­rors). Reno­wned com­po­sers from Ita­ly inc­lu­de Gia­co­mo Puc­ci­ni, Clau­dio Mon­te­ver­di, Anto­nio Vival­di, and Giu­sep­pe Ver­di. The coun­try has pro­du­ced celeb­ra­ted artists like Miche­lan­ge­lo, Leonar­do da Vin­ci, Bot­ti­cel­li, and Cara­vag­gio, and famous wri­ters such as Dan­te Alig­hie­ri and Giovan­ni Boc­cac­cio. Notab­le phi­lo­sop­hers inc­lu­de Gior­da­no Bru­no and Nic­co­lo Machia­vel­li. In cine­ma, Ita­ly boasts direc­tors like Fede­ri­co Fel­li­ni and Ser­gio Leone. The coun­try has pro­du­ced influ­en­tial scien­tists, inc­lu­ding Gali­leo Gali­lei and Enri­co Fer­mi (Wiki­pe­dia ENG).

Ita­ly is home to world-​famous fas­hi­on brands like Guc­ci, Pra­da, Ver­sa­ce, Valen­ti­no, Arma­ni, and Benet­ton (world​cat​.org). Ico­nic ape­ri­tifs like Cin­za­no, Mar­ti­ni, and Cam­pa­ri, as well as che­e­ses like moz­za­rel­la, gor­gon­zo­la, and par­mi­gia­no, have gai­ned glo­bal recog­ni­ti­on (Dela­na Miko­lá­šo­vá). Foot­ball clubs like Juven­tus Turin, AC Milan, Lazio Rome, Inter Milan, AC Par­ma, and SSC Naples are pro­mi­nent in Ita­lian sports.


Itá­lie, una ter­ra a for­ma di sti­va­le che spor­ge dal con­ti­nen­te e che da ogni altra par­te è cir­con­da­ta dal Mar Medi­ter­ra­neo. L’I­ta­lia van­ta una sto­ria illus­tre, chi non conos­ce l’an­ti­ca Roma, il peri­odo del­l’an­ti­chi­tà, Ner­va, Mar­co Aure­lio, Cesare?

In Ita­lia vivo­no più di 60 mili­oni di abi­tan­ti su una super­fi­cie di 301.230 km². Ha diver­se iso­le: la Sici­lia, la Sar­deg­na, l’El­ba, Cap­ri, le Tre­mi­ti e Ischia (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk). La mag­gi­or par­te del­l’I­ta­lia è cos­ti­tu­ita dal­la peni­so­la appen­ni­ni­ca. A nord si ergo­no le Alpi, con il Mon­te Bian­co che seg­na il con­fi­ne con la Fran­cia. Att­ra­ver­so la peni­so­la si esten­do­no gli Appen­ni­ni. Sul­le iso­le ci sono vul­ca­ni atti­vi come il Vesu­vio, l’Et­na, lo Strom­bo­li (Wiki​pe​dia​.sk).

Le nazi­ona­li­tà han­no una rapp­re­sen­tan­za piut­tos­to ampia, oltre alla popo­la­zi­one loca­le che cos­ti­tu­is­ce quasi il 93% del­la popo­la­zi­one. Ques­te inc­lu­do­no rume­ni, nor­daf­ri­ca­ni, alba­ne­si, cine­si, ucrai­ni. Le gran­di cit­tà d’I­ta­lia inc­lu­do­no Roma (Rome), Mila­no (Mila­no), Napo­li, Tori­no, Paler­mo, Geno­va (Genoa), Bolog­na, Firen­ze, Bari, Cata­nia, Vene­zia (Veni­ce), Vero­na, Mes­si­na, Pado­va (Padua) (Wiki­pe­dia ENG). Le regi­oni ita­lia­ne inc­lu­do­no l’Ab­ruz­zo, la Basi­li­ca­ta, la Calab­ria, la Cam­pa­nia, l’E­mi­lia Romag­na, il Friu­li Vene­zia Giu­lia, il Lazio, la Ligu­ria, la Lom­bar­dia, le Mar­che, il Moli­se, il Pie­mon­te, la Pug­lia, la Sar­deg­na, la Sici­lia, la Tos­ca­na, il Tren­ti­no – Alto Adi­ge, l’Um­bria, la Val­le d’A­os­ta, il Vene­to (dovo​len​ka​ta​lian​sko​.sk). Roma è la sede del Papa. Mol­to nota è la fra­se: Tut­te le stra­de por­ta­no a Roma”.

Nel­l’an­ti­chi­tà, sul ter­ri­to­rio ita­lia­no, esis­te­va­no città-​stato par­zial­men­te fon­da­te sul­la colo­niz­za­zi­one gre­ca e sul­le cit­tà etrus­che. Nel VIII seco­lo si for­mò Roma, che vis­se una gran­de glo­ria per più di mil­le anni e scom­par­ve nel 476 (Wiki​pe​dia​.cz). Nel­l’an­ti­chi­tà (264144 a.C.) duran­te le guer­re puni­che i Feni­ci di Car­ta­gi­ne com­bat­te­ro­no con­tro i Roma­ni. Neg­li anni 7371 a.C. si veri­fi­cò la rivol­ta di Spar­ta­co. Spar­ta­co era un gla­dia­to­re (Pet­ra Surmová).

Alcu­ni dei famo­si gover­nan­ti di Roma inc­lu­do­no Augus­to, Tibe­rio, Cali­go­la, Clau­dio, Nero­ne, Ves­pa­sia­no, Tito, Traia­no, Adria­no, Anto­ni­no Pio, Lucio Vero, Mar­co Aure­lio, Com­mo­do, Per­ti­na­ce, Set­ti­mio Seve­ro, Vale­ria­no, Gal­lie­no, Quin­til­lo, Taci­to, Flo­ria­no, Dioc­le­zia­no, Fla­vio Vale­rio Seve­ro, Lici­nio, Teodo­sio, Romo­lo Augus­to (List of Roman empe­rors). Famo­si com­po­si­to­ri musi­ca­li ita­lia­ni inc­lu­do­no Gia­co­mo Puc­ci­ni, Clau­dio Mon­te­ver­di, Arcan­ge­lo Corel­li, Anto­nio Vival­di, Gioachi­no Ros­si­ni, Nic­co­lò Paga­ni­ni, Giu­sep­pe Ver­di, Gae­ta­no Doni­zet­ti. Artis­ti famo­si inc­lu­do­no Miche­lan­ge­lo, Leonar­do da Vin­ci, Dona­tel­lo, Bot­ti­cel­li, Cara­vag­gio, Tizia­no, Raf­fa­el­lo, scrit­to­ri come Dan­te Alig­hie­ri, Giovan­ni Boc­cac­cio, Torqu­ato Tas­so, filo­so­fi come Gior­da­no Bru­no, Nic­co­lò Machia­vel­li, regis­ti come Vit­to­rio De Sica, Fede­ri­co Fel­li­ni, Pier Paolo Paso­li­ni, Luchi­no Vis­con­ti, Miche­lan­ge­lo Anto­ni­oni, Ser­gio Leone, scien­zia­ti come Leonar­do da Vin­ci, Gali­leo Gali­lei, Enri­co Fer­mi, Giovan­ni Dome­ni­co Cas­si­ni, Ales­san­dro Vol­ta, Leonar­do Pisa­no Fibo­nac­ci, Camil­lo Gol­gi, Gug­liel­mo Mar­co­ni (Wiki­pe­dia ENG).

Sono famo­se in tut­to il mon­do mar­che di moda come Guc­ci, Pra­da, Ver­sa­ce, Valen­ti­no, Arma­ni (world​cat​.org), Benet­ton (Dela­na Miko­lá­šo­vá), ape­ri­ti­vi come Cin­za­no, Mar­ti­ni, Cam­pa­ri, for­mag­gi come moz­za­rel­la, gor­gon­zo­la, par­mi­gia­no (Dela­na Miko­lá­šo­vá), e squ­ad­re di cal­cio come la Juven­tus di Tori­no, l’AC Mila­no, la Lazio di Roma, l’In­ter Mila­no, l’AC Par­ma, il SSC Napoli.


Nie­kto­ré príspevky

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2006-2010, 2009, Časová línia, Európske, Krajina, Mestá, Mestá, Talianske mestá, Taliansko, Typ krajiny, Zahraničie

Jesolo – prímorská dovolenková oblasť severného Talianska

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Jeso­lo je prí­mor­ským leto­vis­kom na pobre­ží Jad­ran­ské­ho mora v Sever­nom Talian­sku. Pláž v Jeso­le je 15 km dlhá. Sta­ré cen­trum Vec­chia, s úzky­mi ulič­ka­mi a trh­mi dýcha typic­kou auten­tic­kou talian­skou atmo­sfé­rou. Blíz­ko sa nachá­dzajp ostro­vy Bura­no s fareb­ný­mi doma­mi a his­to­ric­ký Tor­cel­lo, kde sa nachá­dza bazi­li­ka San­ta Maria Assun­ta, kos­tol San­ta Fos­ca. V Jeso­le je aktív­ny noč­ný život, klu­by a bary ponú­ka­jú zába­vu až do sko­rých ran­ných hodín. Počas let­ných mesia­cov mes­to hos­tí náv­štev­ní­kov z celé­ho sveta.

Jeso­lo sa nachá­dza na seve­re Talian­ska pri pobre­ží Jad­ra­nu. Veľ­mi blíz­ko Bená­tok. Sta­ro­ve­ké meno mes­ta Jeso­lo Equ­ilium pochá­dza z latin­ské­ho equ­us, ale­bo vene­ti­ca ekvo, čo zna­me­ná mes­to koní. Iné his­to­ric­ké náz­vy: Equ­ilo, Lesu­lo, Jexu­lo, Jexol­lo, Jeso­lum. V Talian­sku sa toto mes­to čas­to ozna­ču­je ako Ieso­lo (jeso​lo​.biz).


Jeso­lo is a sea­si­de resort on the Adria­tic coast in Nort­hern Ita­ly. The beach in Jeso­lo stret­ches for 15 km. The old town of Vec­chia, with its nar­row stre­ets and mar­kets, exu­des a typi­cal aut­hen­tic Ita­lian atmo­sp­he­re. Near­by, you can find the islands of Bura­no with color­ful hou­ses and the his­to­ric Tor­cel­lo, whe­re the Basi­li­ca of San­ta Maria Assun­ta and the church of San­ta Fos­ca are loca­ted. Jeso­lo has an acti­ve night­li­fe, with clubs and bars offe­ring enter­tain­ment until the ear­ly hours. During the sum­mer months, the city hosts visi­tors from around the world.

Jeso­lo is loca­ted in nort­hern Ita­ly on the coast of the Adria­tic Sea, very clo­se to Veni­ce. The ancient name of the town, Jeso­lo Equ­ilium, is deri­ved from the Latin equ­us, or Vene­tian ekvo, mea­ning the city of hor­ses. Other his­to­ri­cal names inc­lu­de Equ­ilo, Lesu­lo, Jexu­lo, Jexol­lo, and Jeso­lum. In Ita­ly, this town is often refer­red to as Ieso­lo (jeso​lo​.biz).


Jeso­lo è una loca­li­tà bal­ne­a­re sul­la cos­ta adria­ti­ca nel Nord Ita­lia. La spiag­gia di Jeso­lo si esten­de per 15 km. La vec­chia cit­tà di Vec­chia, con le sue stra­de stret­te e i mer­ca­ti, res­pi­ra un’at­mos­fe­ra auten­ti­ca tipi­ca­men­te ita­lia­na. Nel­le vici­nan­ze si tro­va­no le iso­le di Bura­no con case colo­ra­te e l’is­to­ri­co Tor­cel­lo, dove si tro­va la Basi­li­ca di San­ta Maria Assun­ta e la chie­sa di San­ta Fos­ca. Jeso­lo ha una vita not­tur­na atti­va, con club e bar che off­ro­no intrat­te­ni­men­to fino alle pri­me ore del mat­ti­no. Duran­te i mesi esti­vi, la cit­tà ospi­ta visi­ta­to­ri da tut­to il mondo.

Jeso­lo si tro­va nel nord Ita­lia sul­la cos­ta del­l’Ad­ria­ti­co, mol­to vici­no a Vene­zia. Il nome anti­co del­la cit­tà, Jeso­lo Equ­ilium, deri­va dal lati­no equ­us o dal vene­to ekvo, che sig­ni­fi­ca la cit­tà dei caval­li. Altri nomi sto­ri­ci inc­lu­do­no Equ­ilo, Lesu­lo, Jexu­lo, Jexol­lo e Jeso­lum. In Ita­lia, ques­ta cit­tà è spes­so chia­ma­ta Ieso­lo (jeso​lo​.biz).


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